Transform data Loaded with Airbyte using dbt


This tutorial demonstrates how to use dbt (Data Build Tool) to transform external data load through Airbyte (an Open-Source Extract Load tool) in Teradata Vantage.

This tutorial is based on the original dbt Jaffle Shop tutorial with a small change, instead of using the dbt seed command, the Jaffle Shop dataset is loaded from Google Sheets into Teradata Vantage using Airbyte. Data loaded through airbyte is contained in JSON columns as can be seen in the picture below:

Raw data in Teradata Vantage


Sample Data Loading

  • Follow the steps in the Airbyte tutorial. Make sure you load data from the Jaffle Shop spreadsheet and not the default dataset referenced by the Airbyte tutorial. Also, set the Default Schema in the Teradata destination to airbyte_jaffle_shop.

When you configure a Teradata destination in Airbyte, it will ask for a Default Schema. Set the Default Schema to airbyte_jaffle_shop.

Clone the project

Clone the tutorial repository and change the directory to the project directory:


git clone
cd airbyte-dbt-jaffle

Install dbt

  • Create a new python environment to manage dbt and its dependencies. Activate the environment:

    python3 -m venv env
    source env/bin/activate

    You can activate the virtual environment in Windows by executing the corresponding batch file ./myenv/Scripts/activate.

  • Install dbt-teradata module and its dependencies. The core dbt module is included as a dependency so you don’t have to install it separately:

    pip install dbt-teradata

Configure dbt

  • Initialize a dbt project.

    dbt init

    The dbt project wizard will ask you for a project name and database management system to use in the project. In this demo, we define the project name as dbt_airbyte_demo. Since we are using the dbt-teradata connector, the only database management system available is Teradata.

    Project name prompt
    Database name prompt
  • Configure the profiles.yml file located in the $HOME/.dbt directory. If the profiles.yml file is not present, you can create a new one.

  • Adjust server, username, password to match your Teradata instance’s HOST, Username, Password respectively.

  • In this configuration, schema stands for the database that contains the sample data, in our case that is the default schema that we defined in Airbyte airbyte_jaffle_shop.

      target: dev
          type: teradata
          server: <host>
          schema: airbyte_jaffle_shop
          username: <user>
          password: <password>
          tmode: ANSI
  • Once the profiles.yml file is ready, we can validate the setup. Go to the dbt project folder and run the command:

    dbt debug

    If the debug command returned errors, you likely have an issue with the content of profiles.yml. If the setup is correct, you will get message All checks passed!

    dbt debug output

The Jaffle Shop dbt project

jaffle_shop is a fictional restaurant that takes orders online. The data of this business consists of tables for customers, orders and `payments`that follow the entity relations diagram below:


The data in the source system is normalized. A dimensional model based on the same data, more suitable for analytics tools, is presented below:


dbt transformations

The complete dbt project encompassing the transformations detailed below is located at Jaffle Project with Airbyte.

The reference dbt project performs two types of transformations.

  • First, it transforms the raw data (in JSON format), loaded from Google Sheets via Airbyte, into staging views. At this stage the data is normalized.

  • Next, it transforms the normalized views into a dimensional model ready for analytics.

The following diagram shows the transformation steps in Teradata Vantage using dbt:


As in all dbt projects, the folder models contains the data models that the project materializes as tables, or views, according to the corresponding configurations at the project, or individual model level.

The models can be organized into different folders according to their purpose in the organization of the data warehouse/lake. Common folder layouts include a folder for staging, a folder for core, and a folder for marts. This structure can be simplified without affecting the workings of dbt.

Staging models

In the original dbt Jaffle Shop tutorial the project’s data is loaded from csv files located in the ./data folder through dbt’s seed command. The seed command is commonly used to load data from tables, however, this command is not designed to perform data loading.

In this demo we are assuming a more typical setup in which a tool designed for data loading, Airbyte, was used to load data into the datawarehouse/lake. Data loaded through Airbyte though is represented as raw JSON strings. From these raw data we are creating normalized staging views. We perform this task through the following staging models.

  • The stg_customers model creates the normalized staging view for customers from the _airbyte_raw_customers table.

  • The stg_orders model creates the normalized view for orders from the _airbyte_raw_orders table

  • The stg_payments model creates the normalized view for payments from the _airbyte_raw_payments table.

As the method of extracting JSON strings remains consistent across all staging models, we will provide a detailed explanation for the transformations using just one of these models as an example.

Below an example of transforming raw JSON data into a view through the stg_orders.sql model :

WITH source AS (
    SELECT * FROM {{ source('airbyte_jaffle_shop', '_airbyte_raw_orders')}}

flattened_json_data AS (
    _airbyte_data.JSONExtractValue('$.id') AS order_id,
    _airbyte_data.JSONExtractValue('$.user_id') AS customer_id,
    _airbyte_data.JSONExtractValue('$.order_date') AS order_date,
    _airbyte_data.JSONExtractValue('$.status') AS status
  FROM source

SELECT * FROM flattened_json_data
  • In this model the source is defined as the raw table _airbyte_raw_orders.

  • This raw table columns contains both metadata, and the actual ingested data. The data column is called _airbyte_data.

  • This column is of Teradata JSON type. This type supports the method JSONExtractValue for retrieving scalar values from the JSON object.

  • In this model we are retrieving each of the attributes of interest and adding meaningful aliases in order to materialize a view.

Dimensional models (marts)

Building a Dimensional Model is a two-step process:

  • First, we take the normalized views in stg_orders, stg_customers, stg_payments and build denormalized intermediate join tables customer_orders, order_payments, customer_payments. You will find the definitions of these tables in ./models/marts/core/intermediate.

  • In the second step, we create the dim_customers and fct_orders models. These constitute the dimensional model tables that we want to expose to our BI tool. You will find the definitions of these tables in ./models/marts/core.

Executing transformations

For executing the transformations defined in the dbt project we run:

dbt run

You will get the status of each model as given below:

dbt run output

Test data

To ensure that the data in the dimensional model is correct, dbt allows us to define and execute tests against the data.

The tests are defined in ./models/marts/core/schema.yml and ./models/staging/schema.yml. Each column can have multiple tests configured under the tests key.

  • For example, we expect that fct_orders.order_id column will contain unique, non-null values.

To validate that the data in the produced tables satisfies the test conditions run:

dbt test

If the data in the models satisfies all the test cases, the result of this command will be as below:

dbt test output

Generate documentation

Our model consists of just a few tables. In a scenario with more sources of data, and a more complex dimensional model, documenting the data lineage and what is the purpose of each of the intermediate models is very important.

Generating this type of documentation with dbt is very straight forward.

dbt docs generate

This will produce html files in the ./target directory.

You can start your own server to browse the documentation. The following command will start a server and open up a browser tab with the docs' landing page:

dbt docs serve

Lineage graph

dbt lineage graph


This tutorial demonstrated how to use dbt to transform raw JSON data loaded through Airbyte into dimensional model in Teradata Vantage. The sample project takes raw JSON data loaded in Teradata Vantage, creates normalized views and finally produces a dimensional data mart. We used dbt to transform JSON into Normalized views and multiple dbt commands to create models (dbt run), test the data (dbt test), and generate and serve model documentation (dbt docs generate, dbt docs serve).

Further reading

If you have any questions or need further assistance, please visit our community forum where you can get support and interact with other community members.
Did this page help?